Lotharella reticulosa sp. nov.: A highly reticulated network forming chlorarachniophyte from the mediterranean sea

TitleLotharella reticulosa sp. nov.: A highly reticulated network forming chlorarachniophyte from the mediterranean sea
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsOta S, Vaulot D
KeywordsChlorarachniophytes, Lotharella, Mediterranean Sea, RCC375, RCC376, Taxonomy.

A new chlorarachniophyte Lotharella reticulosa sp. nov. is described from a culture isolated from the Mediterranean Sea. This strain is maintained as strain RCC375 at the Roscoff Culture Collection, France. This species presents a multiphasic life cycle: vegetative cells of this species were observed to be coccoid, but amoeboid cells with filopodia and globular suspended cells were also present in the life cycle, both of which were not dominant phases. Flagellate cells were also observed but remained very rare in culture. The vegetative cells were 9-16 ??m in diameter and highly vacuolated, containing several green chloroplasts with a projecting pyrenoid, mitochondria, and a nucleus. The chloroplast was surrounded by four membranes possessing a nucleomorph in the periplastidial compartment near the pyrenoid base. According to ultrastructural observations of the pyrenoid and nucleomorph, the present species belongs to the genus Lotharella in the phylum Chlorarachniophyta. This taxonomic placement is consistent with the molecular phylogenetic trees of the 18S rRNA gene and ITS sequences. This species showed a unique colonization pattern. Clusters of cells extended cytoplasmic strands radially. Then, amoeboid cells being born proximately moved distally along the cytoplasmic strand like on a "railway track" Subsequently the amoeboid cell became coccoid near the strand. In this way, daughter cells were dispersed evenly on the substratum. We also observed that the present species regularly formed a structure of filopodial nodes in mid-stage and later-stage cultures, which is a novel phenotype in chlorarachniophytes. The unique colonization pattern and other unique features demonstrate that RCC375 is a new chlorarachniophyte belonging to genus Lotharella, which we describe as Lotharella reticulosa sp. nov. ?? 2011 Elsevier GmbH.